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For a long time I have read literary and philosophical texts. I would like to list some ideas that have fascinated me.

When I think of Socrates I am surprised. He was the wisest man alive. His famous dictum is: & # 39; know yourself & # 39;. When you look at it philosophically you really cannot feel the self fully. You are still fascinated by the idea of ​​the self and its knowledge. I marvel at Socrates who became a martyr all to be a philosopher.

Next, I am surprised by Plato's allegory of the cave. He has used this allegory to explain form theory. All men live in a dark cave and from their wall they can see a strong light penetrating them. What Plato meant was that there is a super-sensitive world outside the existence of a sensible world.

Then I want to take the term dialectic. The dialectic is as old as Socrates. He used dialectics as a method of question and answer and there by coming to the truth. The concept of dialectics was transformed by Hegel. For Hegel there was a thesis, an anti-thesis and synthesis. The idea of ​​dialectics was further transformed by Marx into dialectical materialism. For him, the whole story was based on the idea of ​​production. The producers were the capitalists and the workers were the proletariat. All the superstructure of society, as well as its legal, political and cultural institutions, derives directly from a materialistic base that is productive capacity. In a capitalist system, the proletariat is exploited. Marx believed that a revolution would take place and communism would be established at the ends of the earth.

Then I want to bring up Nietzsche's theory of art, called the birth of tragedy. Art occurs when the Apollonian and Dionysian elements coincide. Apollonian elements consist of melody and the Dionysian elements consist of rhythm and beat. Art is born with the merger of the two.

Next I would like to take Camus & # 39; Myth of the Sisyphus. Sisyphus was a person condemned by the gods for rolling a boulder all the way up a hill just because his anxiety detects it rolling down again. Camus & # 39; depicts the dreaded monotony and anxiety of human life. It is for this reason that Camus became an atheist, existential nihilist.

Next, I would like to take up Sartre's idea of ​​being in himself and being in himself. Being in oneself is a primary consciousness and being in oneself is a consciousness directed at objects. For Sartre, existentialism is a philosophy in which we must place responsibility for our actions. To trust in God or others is regarded by him as an act of bad faith.

Next I would like to address the Freudian concepts Id, Ego and Super Ego and also his dream analysis. Id is the primary place for our passion, the ego is the culture that our parents bring and the super-ego is the law of society. A self must tighten the rope with a balance, a balance between id, ego and super ego. Dreams for Freud are based on condensation and displacement. Condensed dreams are a fusion of various symbolic images. Movement in dreams is escapism. The follower of Freud, Lacan said that all dreams are structured in language. Dreams are metaphors and metonyms. According to linguist Roman Jacobson, metaphors exist on the syntagmatic axis and metonyms occur on the paradigmic axis.

Another fascinating concept that affected me deeply was Saussure's sign concept. A character consists of the signifier and the signified. The signifier is the visual, concrete element while the signifier is an abstract idea. For example, in one sentence: pigeon is peace: pigeon is the signifier and peace is the signified.
Then I move on to Derrida & # 39; s concept of deconstruction. According to deconstruction, characters in texts allow some and marginalize others. For example: a native English speaker is preferred in an international school over people from decolonized countries. For Derrida, the purpose of reading a text is to reveal its structural contradictions.

Next, I would like to address Lacan's concept of the Mirror Stage. The mirror phase is a stage where the child becomes self-taught and learns to take away his bond with the mother. When the self is realized, the problem for Lacan begins. Desire and lack come into the realm of the hunt. From a world of plenitude, the child understands scarcity. The mirror stage is widely used in film studies and dissects how the viewer becomes enchanted with the film's acting. Laura has said that cinema must integrate gay, lesbian and feminine looks into their themes.

Next I would like to address: Kristeva & # 39; s concepts the semiotic and the symbolic. Semiotics is an area where syntax and grammar are avoided. For example: we meet semiotics in dance, music and consciousness stories. The symbolic is an area where grammar and syntax and the rules of language follow. Legal, political and medical texts are symbolic. For Kristeva, art is a fusion of the semiotic and the symbolic.